Overall Green alert Volcanic eruption for Semeru
in Indonesia

Event summary

GREEN alert: The Semeru Volcanic eruption is unlikely to require external humanitarian assistance based on the exposed population and coping capacity.

GDACS ID VO 1000035
Name: Semeru
Glide number: VO-2021-000194-IDN
Lat/Lon: -8.108 , 112.922
Event Date: 03 Jan 2022 UTC
Exposed Population 30km: About 870000 people within 30km
Exposed Population 100km: About 19740000 people within 100km
Max Volc. Explosivity Index VEI: 3
Population Exposure Index PEI: 5
Inserted at: 09 Dec 2021 14:56 UTC


For more info on GDACS alert score click here.
Virtual OSOCC
Meteo assessment
Satellite products
Analytical products
Indonesia - Mount Semeru Volcanic Eruption (ECHO 05 Dec 2021)Sun, 05 Dec 2021 11:22

  • Explosive activity at Mt. Semeru escalated on 4 December with an explosion at 14:50 WIB (UTC+7) producing an ash plume up to 15.2 km
  • As of 08:30 UTC on 5 December, the national disaster management agency, BNPB, is reporting 13 fatalities, with seven people missing and dozens injured. Hundreds took refuge in evacuation halls.
  • Rockfalls and pyroclastic density currents have been reported by the seismic network and visual observations, while seasonal rain and thunderstorms that are forecast for the coming days present an increased risk of rain-triggered lahars. 
  • A number of villages have been covered in up to 4 metres of volcanic ash and sand, while housing, roads and bridges have been damaged. The BNPB is supporting in the immediate aftermath with helicopters, heavy machinery, food, shelter and PPE such as face masks. 
Indonesia - Mount Semeru volcanic eruption, update (ECHO 07 Dec 2021)Tue, 07 Dec 2021 12:12

  • On 6 December at 10.54 UTC, Mount Semeru, located in East Java Province,  erupted again and an ash column was observed approximately 1,000 m above the peak. The number of casualties, following the main eruption of 4 December has been rising.
  • The number of fatalities has increased to 34 and 17 people remain missing. At least 5,205 people affected, including 3,697 people displaced according to the Indonesian National Board for Disaster Management (BNPB).
  • More than 980 joint personnel deployed by national authorities are conducting the search and evacuation activities.
  • There is a need for further preparation of evacuation centres, public kitchens and vehicles for relief item distribution. At least 58 institutions, ranging from government agencies, NGOs, Indonesian Red Cross and private sector are providing assistance.
  • The alert level of the volcano stands at 2 (on a scale from 1 to 4) as reported by the Multiplatform Application for Geohazard Mitigation and Assessment in Indonesia (MAGMA). 
Indonesia - Floods and landslide (ECHO 09 Dec 2021)Thu, 09 Dec 2021 12:42

  • Widespread floods and landslides triggered by heavy rain have affected several parts of Indonesia since 5 December, resulting in casualties and damage as reported by the ASEAN Coordinating Centre for Humanitarian Assistance on disaster management (AHA Centre).
  • In West Nusa Tenggara Province, five people have died, one is missing and eight people have been injured. At least 6,500 people have been displaced, 66,800 affected and 8,600 houses damaged across the Province, following flood and landslide events.
  • In South Sulawesi Province, more than 4,800 people have been displaced, over 31,000 affected and 1,600 houses damaged due to floods.
  • In Bangka Belitung Islands Province, 5,130 people have been affected by floods as well as more than 1,000 houses. Furthermore, 2,000 people have been affected, and 400 houses damaged in East Java Province.
  • For the next 24 hours, light rain with localized thunderstorms is forecast over the aforementioned Provinces.
Detailed event map. European Union, 2024. Map produced by EC-JRC.
The boundaries and the names shown on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the European Union.

Updates on volcanic activity (Smithsonian)

The Smithsonian/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report provides information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Latest Semeru report has been published on 08 Dec 2021 08:55.
PMVBG reported collapses of the lava dome in Semeru?s Jonggring Seloko Crater and SE-flank flow during 1-6 December. On 1 December material collapsed from the unstable distal end of a 1-km-long lava flow in the SE-flank Kobokan drainage, sending a pyroclastic flow 700 m down the valley. Subsequent avalanches were recorded by the seismic network that day and on 3 December were not visually confirmed, likely due to several days of rainy conditions. At 1330 on 4 December the seismic network recorded avalanche signals. A larger collapse began at 1447 was seen by an observer at the Mount Semeru Volcano Observation Post and identified in data collected by PVMBG. Avalanches of incandescent material from the summit dome and SE-flank lava flow descended 500-800 m. Pyroclastic flows were visible at 1510 descending the Kobokan drainage and a sulfur odor was noted. At 1520 a large pyroclastic flow produced a large roiling and expanding ash cloud that eventually rose to 15 km (50,000 ft) a.s.l. Reports from residents described darkness from airborne ash and rainy/foggy conditions. Pyroclastic material was deposited in two districts in the Lumajang regency, and eight districts in the neighboring Malang regency were covered with ash. Preliminary estimates suggested that deposits extended at least 16 km SE from the summit. According to the Darwin VAAC satellite observations acquired at 1630 showed a detached ash cloud drifting SW at an altitude of 15 km (50,000 ft) a.s.l. At 1740 the ash cloud continued to drift SW and a second ash cloud was drifting W at 9.1 km (30,000 ft) a.s.l. The second ash cloud had detached by 1840. On 5 December satellite images showed the two ash clouds still drifting SW and W, and possible diffuse ash emissions rising to 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l.; ash had dissipated by 1000. Following the 4 December pyroclastic flow Badan Penanggulangan Bencana Daerah (BPBD) issued a warning to residents to stay away from drainages due to lahar hazards and began evacuating people in high-risk areas. Ten people trapped in a building could not be reached because of scalding hot deposits but were later rescued. Almost all of the houses in the Curah Kobokan area had been destroyed, mainly by pyroclastic flows, though some residents reported roof collapses from ashfall. One area of Curah Kobokan was inundated by hot lahars that took down trees. Pyroclastic flows also destroyed the Gladak Perak bridge, 13 km SE of the summit, which linked residents of Pronojiwo and Lumajang; the national road leading to Malang was blocked by tephra and fallen trees. According to news articles and BNPB, by the next day 14 people were confirmed to have died, 57 had been injured and taken to hospitals (more than a dozen of were in critical condition due to severe burns), and at least seven residents and sand miners working along the river in Curah Kobokan were missing. About 1,300 people had relocated to evacuation centers or alternative housing. Additional pyroclastic flows during 5-6 December descended 2-3 km SE, and incandescent avalanches descended 500 m. At 0855 on 6 December a pyroclastic flow traveled 4 km down the SE drainage, temporarily halting rescue and recovery efforts. Later that day, the head of BNPB, police officers, and others conducted a 15-minute overflight of Curah Kobokan and observed steam plumes rising from the deposits. Initial estimates were that 2,970 houses and 38 educational facilities across several sub-districts in Lumajang Regency had been destroyed or damaged by the pyroclastic flows. Authorities also traveled to the fallen bridge and other nearby locations, noting damaged vegetation, fallen trees, and volcanic deposits up to 30 cm thick along the road. By 7 December an estimated 4,250 residents were displaced in about 20 evacuation centers; most people originating from the Lumajang Regency and fewer from the Malang and Blitar regencies. The number of fatalities reached 34, with another 22 people missing. Search efforts focused on the villages of Renteng, Sumberwuluh, and Kobokan Curah, but daily afternoon rains hampered rescue and recovery efforts. Sources: Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB) ,BBC News,Earth Observatory of Singapore, Remote Sensing Lab,National Public Radio (NPR) ,Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
See the detail here

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Estimated casualties (PAGER)

USGS estimates the number of casualties for each earthquake for the Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) product.
The graph shows the current fatalities estimate.

Exposed population

Data, images, links, services and documents

For this events, GDACS has links to information from the following sources: EC-JRC (32), (2), INGV (2), DesInventar (1), WMO (1), INFORM (2),